4. Inclusion in Disaster Risk Reduction

The late British PM Margaret Thatcher, used to claim that there is no such thing a society, as we are all individuals. That view is neither shared in this handbook, nor by the United Nations.
The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015 – 2030 calls for an ‘all-of-society approach’ that is people-centred and inclusive. It enjoins governments, among others, to engage with all relevant stakeholders, including women, children and youth, persons with disabilities, poor people, migrants, indigenous peoples, and older persons in the design and implementation of policies, plans and standards.
It means ensuring that DRR policies and practices not only include them, but are also sufficiently attuned to their special needs and conditions. In the EDUCEN project, gender and disability were highlighted as priority areas in this regard, but also other groups were discussed in the EDUCEN workshops and exercises.
You may note that we make scant reference to ‘community’ as in ‘community-based DRR’ or ’community resilience’. In the below, Robert Coates explains why a ‘community focus’, while laudable, may obscure important differences.
You may also note, that we focus on ‘diversity’ rather than on ‘vulnerable groups’. While, for example, clearly more elderly people are likely to need special help in disaster than young adults, labelling specific groups as vulnerable is to neglect their agency and self-perception. Very few social groups identify themselves as ‘vulnerable’ or ‘marginalised‘ and while less-resilient in one respect, they may have crucial knowledge, capacities and networks in other respects.
That is not to say that special attention is not in order. We zoom in on religion, gender and disability as aspects that are found at all ages and walks of life in cities, and thus also in urban disaster. We pay special attention to AKUT’s encouraging results in working with and for people with disabilities in the Istanbul megacity.


4.1. What is community?
4.1.1. Questioning community
4.1.2. Community and disaster interventions
4.2. Engaging with beliefs and religious groups in disaster
4.2.1. Working with beliefs and religious groups
4.3. Diversity and people with disabilities
4.3.1. Disaster policies and frameworks
4.3.2. Disability
4.3.3. Disability Inclusive Disaster Risk Management (DiDRM)
4.3.4. In Practice: Lessons Learned on DiDRM in Istanbul
4.4. Gender and special needs
4.4.1. The concept of gender
4.4.2. The link between gender and disaster
4.4.3. Gender-specific disaster management instruments
4.4.4. Other groups with special needs